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For Information and Communication Engineering
Human Error and Computer System Design
How do human errors cause system failure?
What can we do to avoid problems due to human errors in important projects such as space mission?
What is the practice in aviation industry in learning lessens of major accidents?
Can the computer industry learn something from other industries?
Theoretically a transmitter should only transmit electric signals and a receiver should only receive signals. Yet this hardly ever happens in the ordinary laboratory because a piece of electronic equipment can either transmit or receive electric energy.
Consequently, electronic equipment is constantly subjected to unwanted signals, and is constantly producing energy that adjacent equipment is not designed to accept. This is the basic problem of electromagnetic compatibility. The electronic equipment must operate in conjunction with other equipment without causing malfunction or degradation of operation of any of the associated equipment.
An ideally designed piece of equipment should not radiate any unwanted energy; nor should it be susceptible to any unwanted energy. To accomplish this, a medium would have to enclose the equipment so that unwanted energy either leaving or attempting to enter the equipment is effectively attenuated.
The term (coding) in the digital context can refer to several processes. For example, we may think in terms of making the message unintelligible to unauthorized users, or alternatively, the conversion of a simple binary signal to another digital form more suitable for transmission.
Here we shall consider only the simple coding structures and mechanisms that are required to represent a particular analog value digitally. There are many different types of coding mechanisms, and to simplify our analysis it is useful to classify them.
Since the step size is constant throughout the permitted amplitude range, the signal is said to be uniformly quantized.
A. designated B. allowed C. permanent D. assigned
The amplitudes of the harmonics of the message signal are virtually unattenuated at the high frequency.
A. nearly B. normally C. factually D. slightly
There is a one-to-one correspondence between every instruction in an assembly language program and its equivalent machine language program.
A. similarity B. correlation C. efficiency D. identification
The results of this analysis were then compared with the specification, and an error was usually indicated between them.
A. requirement B. special aspect
C. implication D. simplification
The second section describes quantization schemes that take account of the characteristics of speech.
A. techniques B. systems C. mechanisms D. principles
The approach differs from classical synthesis and design in that no formal design technique other than network analysis is required.
A. strategy B. road C. scheme D. idea
The system capacity, or rate of information transmission through a communication system, is related to the rapidity with which signals may change with time.
A. complexity B. rate C. clarity D. quickness
The system impairments, other than quantization error, that may occur in practical equipment are then discussed.
A. rather than B. besides C. as well as D. except
They are like the jumper manufacturer who discovers that it is more economical to mould jumpers, in one operation, from a wonderful new plastic, which looks and feels just like wool.
A. take jumpers into shape B. give a shape to jumpers
C. shape jumpers by using a mould D. model jumpers
The third section describes quantization schemes that take account of the characteristics of speech.
A. consider B. make use of C. count D. compute
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